Finally, at the end of the refutation, there is a clear conclusion.
As attractive as Safe Traveler Cards or national ID cards are, they are not without drawbacks.
Also, towards the end of the first paragraph, and throughout the second paragraph, the writer spends time clearly attacking these opposing views.
He helps the reader feel like the opposing views might SEEM good on the surface, but they are indeed not good enough.
He helps the reader see this with hints like "One of the biggest dangers of school choice is..." or "It is feared that...".
This paragraph particularly draws in any hostile readers; the writer cunningly draws them in by complimenting their views when he says "Activists within the school choice movement can be applauded for seeking to improve public education," but he immediately points out the flaws, saying that " the changes they propose would in fact seriously damage public education as a whole." Complimenting the opposing argument really invites all your hesitant readers; they’re not threatened, and they’re now more willing to listen to the arguments.
One of the biggest dangers of school choice is the power behind large corporations specializing in opening and operating charter schools.
Two notable companies are Green Dot, which is the leading public school operator in Los Angeles (Green Dot), and KIPP, which operates 65 schools in 19 different states [KIPP].
It can be one of the first body paragraphs, it can be one of the middle body paragraphs, or it can be one of the last.
The placement of the refutation paragraph depends on the logical organization of the essay, and writers need to develop a clear outline in order to decide where the refutation section will be placed. Ignoring the opposition is futile in that the audience is aware of the opposing arguments and will doubt the credibility of a presentation that chooses to ignore the opposition rather than deal with its (Each these samples have 2-paragraph refutation; some essays may only have a 1 paragraph refutation while other essays, like research papers, may require a much longer refutation) Charter Schools Vs.