To qualify for cyclothymic disorder, the periods of depression cannot meet full diagnostic criteria for an MDE; the person must experience symptoms at least half the time with no more than two consecutive symptom-free months; and the symptoms must cause significant distress or impairment.was published in 2013, and findings based on the updated manual will be forthcoming.
The mood disturbance must be present for one week or longer in mania (unless hospitalization is required) or four days or longer in hypomania.
Concurrently, at least three of the following symptoms must be present in the context of euphoric mood (or at least four in the context of irritable mood): Manic episodes are distinguished from hypomanic episodes by their duration and associated impairment; whereas manic episodes must last one week and are defined by a significant impairment in functioning, hypomanic episodes are shorter and not necessarily accompanied by impairment in functioning.
It may also involve a great deal of shame for the mother, making her reluctant to divulge her experience to others, including her doctors and family.
Feelings of shame are not unique to perinatal depression.
Two major types of unipolar disorders described by the (APA, 2013) are major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder (PDD; dysthymia).
MDD is defined by one or more MDEs, but no history of manic or hypomanic episodes.
Despite the fact that about one in 20 women experience depression after the birth of a baby (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013), postpartum depression—recently renamed “perinatal depression”—continues to be veiled by stigma, owing in part to a widely held expectation that motherhood should be a time of great joy.
In an opinion piece in the , Shields revealed that entering motherhood was a profoundly overwhelming experience for her.
Stigma applies to other types of depressive and bipolar disorders and contributes to people not always receiving the necessary support and treatment for these disorders.
In fact, the World Health Organization ranks both major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) among the top 10 leading causes of disability worldwide. It is estimated that 25%–50% of people diagnosed with BD will attempt suicide at least once in their lifetimes (Goodwin & Jamison, 2007).