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Hunt 1997 found that support systems helped amongst the Normandy veterans.
Could fail to reduce the effect of trauma and increase stress that leads to PTSD instead (Lazarus 1991).
The Cognitive also do not agree on the behavioural idea that classical conditioning is the only mechanism responsible for PTSD, as not everyone that experiences traumatic events develops the disorder.
An example is the 'shell shock' disorder where comrades experienced trauma and shock during the First World War.
In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), PTSD is diagnosed if clinical characteristics continue for longer than a month and produce clinical significant distress.
Concentration may be effected by the constant flashbacks and so the sufferer becomes irritable and angrier. Middle Due to these thoughts, the symptoms of drinking, drug usage and detachment from others may result.
However, inadequate coping strategies of alcohol abuse, drugs ect.
Thompson 1997 explains that PTSD is an anxiety disorder occurring in response to an extreme psychological or physical trauma, which is outside the range of 'normal' human experience.
Brewer 1998 defines PTSD as a curse for perpetual reminiscence.
DSM describes two trauma disorders: acute stress disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder, both of which you may read about in the links to the left of this document.
In a nutshell, acute stress disorder occurs in the time frame between just after exposure to a traumatic event to six months later, and posttraumatic stress beginning at the six month point and extending thereafter.