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However, in most situations, particularly social ones, there is inter-action: exchange of opinion, agreement, argument, attraction, flirtation, aggression, repulsion, and so on.In this way, through interaction, our expectations and assumptions are either confirmed, contradicted or modified.
Conceptual elements and therapeutic strengths pertinent to the scenario will be identified, and the limitations of each approach will be highlighted, along with the need for racial, cultural, religious and gender sensitivity on the part of the counsellor.
Examples of practical techniques will be explored to illustrate the therapeutic effectiveness and expected outcomes of each model.
Finally, it will be demonstrated that both the psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioural counselling theories, in the hands of trained, professional helpers, occupy important roles in the spectrum of counselling philosophies.
An irrefutable element in contemporary psychological and counselling practices is the seminal work of Sigmund Freud, who originally conceptualised the notion of 'the unconscious' and its effect on human behaviour (Kovel 1987: 96-98).