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And, each of the person's children will have a 1 in 2 (50%) chance of inheriting the gene and developing the same features.Diseases and conditions caused by a dominant gene include achondroplasia (pronounced: ay-kon-druh-PLAY-zhuh, a form of dwarfism), Marfan syndrome (a connective tissue disorder), and Huntington disease (a degenerative disease of the nervous system).
Have people ever said to you, "It's in your genes"?
They were probably talking about a physical characteristic, personality trait, or talent that you share with other members of your family.
Individual sperm and egg cells, however, have just 23 unpaired chromosomes.
You received half of your chromosomes from your mother's egg and the other half from your father's sperm cell.
If the gene mutation exists in egg or sperm cells, children can inherit the gene mutation from their parents.
When the mutation is in every cell of the body (meaning a child was born with it), the body is not able to "repair" the gene change.Since we have two copies of every gene, typically there's still a "normal" working copy of the gene.In these cases, usually nothing out of the ordinary happens since the body can still do the jobs it needs to do.Fortunately, cells usually recognize these types of mutations and repair them by themselves.Other times, however, they can cause illnesses, such as some types of cancer.Researchers have identified more than 4,000 diseases that are caused by mutations.But having a genetic mutation that may cause a disease or condition doesn't always mean that a person will actually develop that disease or condition.DNA is wrapped together to form structures called chromosomes.Most cells in the human body have 23 pairs of chromosomes, making a total of 46.Because you have a pair of each chromosome, you have two copies of every gene (except for some of the genes on the X and Y chromosomes in boys, because boys have only one of each).Some characteristics come from a single gene, whereas others come from gene combinations.