Here are some examples from recent issues of the Journal Psychological Science.
According to Dickens (2014b), “these viral infections were precipitated by record levels of rainfall around the peninsula” (p. According to a study by Adams (as cited in Franklin, 2016), 25% of all US federal prisoners have been diagnosed with some form of social disorder.
Adams (as cited in Franklin) contends that this statistic “reflects the de-humanizing conditions of most federal institutions” (p. Even when some central information is missing from a website (e.g., no author, date, or webpage title), you may still cite it as a source if you use the correct formatting.
For student papers that are not being submitted for publication—including theses—author notes are generally not necessary. It is the second page of the manuscript and is headed with the word Abstract. The abstract presents the research question, a summary of the method, the basic results, and the most important conclusions.
Because the abstract is usually limited to about 200 words, it can be a challenge to write a good one.