*When tested, students have shown that they can be more successful with word or verbal problems than they are with equivalent problems that are purely symbolic (Nathan & Koedinger, 2000a, 2000b). The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 18(2), 149–167. *

Brian Bushart, an elementary teacher and mathematics curriculum coordinator from Texas, popularized the idea of "numberless word problems" after a colleague tried the approach with some third-grade students. Teachers’ and researchers’ beliefs about the development of algebraic reasoning.

Numberless word problems aren’t entirely new, as the book (Gillan, 1909) presented something vaguely similar in the early 20th century. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 31(2), 168–190.

Traditional math textbooks reinforce this belief by placing word problems at the end of practice sets.

This belief or assumption has been shown to be false, at least under some conditions. Dav Verstehen von Textaufgaben aus phychologischer Sicht.

Instead of thinking through the context of the word problem to understand it, many students simply seek a simple application of arithmetic needed to produce an answer, whether it makes sense or not.

In the following video, Kaplinsky (2013) reproduces a result of early 1980s research conducted at the Institut de Recherche sur l'Enseignement des Mathématiques in France.

219) and reduce the problem to the numbers and keywords or phrases that indicate operations or relations.

This dismissal of the real-world aspects of word problems can contribute to students' suspension of sense-making and their compulsion to calculate.

Most teachers believe or assume that students will have more difficulty solving a word problem than solving an algebraic equation that represents the same mathematics without the words.

Because of this, they believe in teaching word problems only after students master solving similar problems as equations. Pre-service teachers’ conceptions and beliefs about the role of real-world knowledge in mathematical modelling of school word problems. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752(97)00008-X Verschaffel, L., De Corte, E., & Lasure, S. Realistic considerations in mathematical modeling of school arithmetic word problems. https://doi.org/10.1016/0959-4752(94)90002-7 Verschaffel, L., Greer, B., & De Corte, E.

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