71) or complete other types of assignments that incorporate various kinds of sources into their writing.Summary writing is an integrated writing task, and it is understood as a reading-to-write task.In classroom settings, measures for student writing vary depending on the context (Hamp-Lyons, ) points out, rubrics or rating scales serve a central role in evaluating integrated tasks, including L2 summary writing.
71) or complete other types of assignments that incorporate various kinds of sources into their writing.Summary writing is an integrated writing task, and it is understood as a reading-to-write task.Tags: Readymade Duchamp EssayThesis On MicroencapsulationMusic Homework SheetsChildhood Obesity EssaysRunning A Business From Home Planning PermissionShort Essay On Visit To A ParkEssay On Human Rights IssuesToefl Essay College YearsEthical Abortion Essay
In particular, how to replace a certain word with its umbrella term or synonym can be influenced by the learners’ L1.
Another issue related to paraphrasing is the phenomenon of , p. “Patchwriting occurs when a writer copies text from a source and changes only some of the words and grammar” (p. This often happens among novice writers and is seen as a developmental phase of paraphrasing attempts (Pecorari, ).
This new type of rating scale can be characterized as a “hybrid” approach that offers the user a choice of analytic and holistic measures depending on individual purposes, which can enhance teachers’ explicit instructions.) because these skills are essential at every level of education.
In particular, these skills are crucial for university students because they are often required “to write summaries as stand-alone assignments” (Marshall, , p.
These analyses revealed that borrowing words from the source materials determined the writers’ lexical diversity and that lexical diversity significantly differed across the writing scores.
From a sociocultural perspective, paraphrasing behavior may be affected by cultural and linguistic differences.
Teachers face challenges not only in teaching summary writing but also in assessing student summaries.
Difficulties in the assessment of summaries arise for many reasons such as difficulty in identifying the main ideas (Alderson, ), the intricate operations employed in the summarizing process, and insufficient scoring guidelines for educational purposes.
The quantitative examination demonstrated positive results as follows: (a) adding the optional overall quality dimension improved the reliability of our rubric, (b) the overall quality dimension worked well even if it was used alone, (c) our rubric and the ETS holistic rubric overlapped moderately as L2 summary writing assessments, and (d) the two paraphrasing dimensions covered similar but different aspects of paraphrasing.
However, the quantitative analysis using the generalizability theory (G theory) simulated that the reliability (generalizability coefficients) of the rubric was not high when the number of raters decreased.