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 The declaration emphasised the protection of subjects in this kind of research and strongly proclaimed that the well being of individuals is more important than scientific and social interests. In terms of Nursing the first inquiry was the "Nightingale Pledge" (1983).
Research ethics involve requirements on daily work, the protection of dignity of subjects and the publication of the information in the research.
However, when nurses participate in research they have to cope with three value systems; society; nursing and science.
The societal values about human rights, the nursing culture based on the ethic of caring and the researcher's values about scientific inquiry.
According to Clarke these values may conflict with the values of subjects, communities, and societies and create tensions and dilemmas in nursing.
 Informed consent seeks to incorporate the rights of autonomous individuals through self- determination.
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It also seeks to prevent assaults on the integrity of the patient and protect personal liberty and veracity.Below you will find links dealing with academic integrity at the University of Saskatchewan, including links to policy and procedures.Below that you will find links on intellectual property rights, what it is, how it affects grad students, and different polices and procedures governing intellectual property that you should be aware of at the university.Method and material: Using the Medline and the Nursing Cinahl data base, the most important ethical issues which appear in bibliography, will be addressed.After a short description of the nature of nursing, and the advocacy role of nurses, the writer will attempt to highlight the possible conflicts that nurses have to deal with, when undertaking or participating in research. It is said that ethics is the branch of philosophy which deals with the dynamics of decision making concerning what is right and wrong.Scientific research work, as all human activities, is governed by individual, community and social values.Results: The major ethical issues in conducting research are: a) Informed consent, b) Beneficence- Do not harm c) Respect for anonymity and confidentiality d) Respect for privacy.However, both the nature of nursing which focuses on caring, preventing harm and protecting dignity and the advocates role of nurses which calls for defending the rights of subjects, are sometimes incongruent with the ethics in research. Informed consent is one of the means by which a patient's right to autonomy is protected.Beauchamp and Childress define autonomy as the ability for self determination in action according to a personal plan.